Kumpulan Jurnal Nasional & Internasional
|Enterprise Combinations in Cassava Based Food Crop Farming System in Nigeria: Evidence from|
|*Olasunkanmi M. Bamiro, Micheal Afolabi And Fisayo Daramola|
ABSTRAK: Abstract This study examines the enterprise combination in cassava based food crop farming system in Ogun state. Three stage sampling technique was used to select 120 cassava farmers from the study area. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, economic land equivalent ratio (ELER), linear programming and stochastic production frontier to actualize all the objectives. Descriptive statistics was employed for the description of socio-economic characteristics while economic land equivalent ratio (ELER) and linear programming were used for cost-return structure and optimal combination of crops in cassava based farm enterprises respectively.
Descriptive statistics shows that most of the farmers are in their late forty with the mean age of the farmers being 48.2 years with 6years of formal education and wealth of farming experience of about 19 years. The farmers cultivated area of land that varies between 0.5ha and 5 hectare with a mean of 2 hectare. All enterprise combinations are profitable; however, cassava/maize/vegetable production enterprise is the most profitable with net farm income of N 36649.90 per hectare closely followed by cassava /maize with N36462.67 per hectare.
The optimal cassava based combination was actualized by linear programming model which shows that cassava/maize and cassava/maize/vegetable are the optimal combination because only the two combinations contributed to the gross margin and also added zero opportunity cost to the total cost of production. The result also shows that land and capital are the limiting resources whereas labour is not which means that for optimal cassava based production land and capital investment should be increased. In lieu of these findings, farmers in Ogun state farmers should intercrop cassava, maize and vegetables or intercrop cassava and maize, this will not only increase their net farm income per hectare, it will also ensure flow of income during on and off seasons. Farmers should also
increase the utilization of the limiting resources, that is capital base and hectrage of land cultivated. Keywords: Enterprise, Cassava, Farming System, Optimality, Profitability, Intercrop, Linear Programming
Introduction Africa socio economic development is mainly agrarian and about 70 percent of the labour force and 80 percent of its poor people are directly or indirectly engaged in agriculture, live in rural area and depend on agriculture for livelihood (New partnership for African development (NEPAD), 2004). According to Olagunju 2005, agricultural sector is an engine room for sustaining growth of Nigeria economy, he also noted that agriculture still remain the mainstay of the economy of most African states, yet current estimates indicates that some 200 million or 28 percent of Africa’s population are chronically hungry (Iheke, 2008).
High population growth rate which leads to increase in the demand for agricultural product, natural and human disaster such as drought, flood, land degradation as well as civil conflicts in some parts of Africa contribute to this alarming situation and account for high imports and dependence on food aids by most African countries thereby posing huge problem of food insecurity (NEPAD 2004). Cassava has been identified as a very powerful poverty fighter by driving down the price of food to millions of consumers. (Iheke 2008)
Cassava is a very important crop to Nigeria, its comparative production advantage over other staples serves to encourage its cultivation even by the resource poor farmers (Fakayode et al., 2008). Cassava production is ranked the first, followed by yam production at 27 million tonnes in 2002, sorghum at 7 million tones, millet at 6 million tones and rice at 5 million tonnes (FAO 2004). The crop’s production require less labour per unit output than other major staples and crop can also thrive on relatively poor soils. International institute for tropical agriculture (2002) noted that cassava is widely grown in Africa by large numbers of small scale holders across several ecological zones because it is robust crop that can be grown under stress condition. It is also a good staple whose cultivation if encouraged can provide the nationally required food security minimum of 2400
calories per person per day (FAO 2000).
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